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Aerodynamics of Kruger flap equipped airfoils

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Title: Aerodynamics of Kruger flap equipped airfoils
Author: Thomson, Ken
Degree Master of Applied Science - MASc
Program Mechanical Engineering
Copyright Date: 1996
Abstract: The pressure distributions along two airfoil models of differing profiles equipped with upper surface Kruger flaps were measured. The results were compared with the predictions of a theoretical potential flow model, which used conformal mapping to bring the flapped airfoils into a final transform plane where the profile of the flapped airfoil was represented by a unit circle. Potential flow singularities such as sources, sinks, and doublets were added to the flow in the final transform plane to replicate the separation bubble created beneath the flap. Different arrangements of these singularities resulted in four different variations of the theoretical model. The model calculates the velocity and pressure distributions about the airfoil in the final transform plane, and then relays the information back to the original airfoil plane. As mentioned, the experimental investigations were conducted on two different airfoils, the NACA 0018 airfoil, and the FXL III 142 airfoil. Each clean airfoil model had a chord of 24 inches, spanned the 15 inch high test section, and was equipped with a removable 10% chord leading edge Kruger flap. The wind tunnel used had its side walls replaced with arrays of evenly spaced airfoil slats at zero incidence. The airfoil slatted walls resulted in a test section that needed little or no boundary corrections. Each airfoil was equipped with a row of pressure taps located at mid-span which allowed the local static pressure to be measured at various points along the chord. Agreement between experimental and theoretical results was poor at low angles of attack for all model variations, but became increasingly good as angle of attack increased, and as the influence of the separation bubble decreased. The model's accuracy reached a maximum in mid-range of angles of attack, from about 8° to 14°. In this range, the agreement along the suction side of the airfoils was excellent, and the agreement along the pressure side and bubble region was good for all four of the different models. As the angle of attack was increased to values near stall, non-linear and viscous effects became larger, and the models' accuracy decreased again. Methods of increasing the accuracy of the models were tried. Mapping an airfoil artificially augmented by the displacement thickness of a turbulent boundary layer was found to bring the experimental and theoretical results into almost perfect agreement along the suction surface of airfoils at mid-range angles of attack. Averaging the theoretical results for slightly different mapping functions was also found to remove some of the oscillations in the theoretical pressure distributions near the leading edge. , Although there were some problems at both the low and high angles of attack, the potential flow model successfully predicted the pressure distributions along airfoils equipped with upper surface Kruger flaps in the middle range of angles of attack, where the flaps are most likely to be deployed.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2429/5657
Series/Report no. UBC Retrospective Theses Digitization Project [http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/retro_theses/]

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