Go to  Advanced Search

Please note that cIRcle is currently being upgraded to DSpace v5.1. The upgrade means that the cIRcle service will *not* be accepting new submissions from 5:00 PM on September 1, 2015 until 5:00 PM on September 4, 2015. All cIRcle material will still be accessible during this period. Apologies for any inconvenience.

Ice distribution in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during the breakup season

Show simple item record

dc.contributor.author Forward, Charles Nelson
dc.date.accessioned 2012-02-24T20:58:03Z
dc.date.available 2012-02-24T20:58:03Z
dc.date.copyright 1952
dc.date.issued 2012-02-24
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2429/40917
dc.description.abstract The Gulf of St. Lawrence Is closed to commercial navigation for nearly five months each year due to ice conditions. In order to lengthen the shipping season, greater knowledge of the behaviour of the ice is necessary. A step in this direction was the inauguration in 1940 of aerial ice surveys in the gulf during the breakup season. The surveys have continued annually for the past thirteen years. Based primarily on the data provided by these surveys, maps were drawn showing the limits of the main ice areas in each breakup season. Although the maps enabled the isolation of several distinct patterns and rates of breakup, they revealed that the behaviour of the ice was extremely variable. The factors influencing ice conditions, including tides, ocean currents, temperature, and wind, were examined with the aim of discovering the causes of the breakup patterns. A number of factors were found to be important in determining the fundamental behaviour of the ice, bat the meteorological factors of temperature and wind appeared to be the chief agents in causing the variable behaviour from year to year. In spite of these variations, it was possible to trace average conditions throughout the Ice season. The chief characteristics of the ice season may be stated briefly. The Gulf of St. Lawrence is never completely covered with ice, but rather, it is partly covered with fields of shifting pack ice between which lie broad stretches of open water. The southern part of the gulf is an area of accumulation where ice conditions are most serious. The clearing of ice from the gulf begins slowly in January and February and becomes accelerated in March and April. The bulk of the ice moves through Cabot Strait to the open Atlantic rather than remaining inside the gulf until it melts. Generally, the ice either withdraws from west to east, passing through Cabot Strait directly, or it stagnates in the southern part of the gulf toward the end of the season. By the first of May the gulf is usually clear of ice which constitutes a hinderance to navigation. en
dc.language.iso eng en
dc.publisher University of British Columbia en
dc.relation.ispartof Retrospective Theses and Dissertations, 1919-2007 en
dc.relation.ispartofseries UBC Retrospective Theses Digitization Project [http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/retro_theses/] en
dc.subject Saint Lawrence River -- Navigation en
dc.title Ice distribution in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during the breakup season en
dc.type Text en
dc.degree.name Master of Arts - MA en
dc.degree.discipline Geological Sciences en
dc.degree.grantor University of British Columbia en
dc.type.text Thesis/Dissertation en
dc.description.affiliation Science, Faculty of en
dc.degree.campus UBCV en
dc.description.scholarlevel Graduate en

Files in this item

Files Size Format Description   View
UBC_1952_A8 F6 I2.pdf 15.01Mb Adobe Portable Document Format   View/Open

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

All items in cIRcle are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

UBC Library
1961 East Mall
Vancouver, B.C.
Canada V6T 1Z1
Tel: 604-822-6375
Fax: 604-822-3893